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credit: criminal intentmusing.blogspot.com

D/S/Cs are clamoring to “defund” or entirely abolish all police forces.  They’re a bit vague on what might replace law enforcement agencies, but it will absolutely be “transformative.”  Some think they’ll send social workers or psychologists into dangerous situations, and thereby “defuse” them.  I’ll address the reality of a nation without law enforcement soon, but for now, I thought it worthwhile to revisit and revise an article I wrote as part of the series titled Connecticut: The Coming Storm, posted on March 1, 2014, which remains the most-read article I’ve ever put before the public on this scruffy little blog.  You can find all the articles in that series by entering “Connecticut The Coming Storm” in the SMM search bar.

Most people think they know all about the police, gaining that knowledge from TV and Hollywood depictions.  If that’s the sole source of their information, they know little.

THE BASICS:  

In order to be hired as a police officer, one must be at least 21 years of age, in good general health and in good physical shape.  In the past, criminal convictions—even many misdemeanors—were an absolute bar to employment, but no longer.  In many D/S/C ruled cities, they’ve so harried their police, officers than can flee for saner pastures.  They’re hiring people with histories of drug abuse, even felons.  Initial applicants, in the past, were subjected to screening designed to detect a minimum level of common sense and basic human skills before more extensive and expensive testing, however, in the name of “diversity” and racial quotas, even this elementary step is often skipped over.

The “diversity” of people applying for police positions is amazing–and disquieting, and I’m not speaking only of race or gender.  Some have no idea that when applying for a job requiring enormous maturity, responsibility and personal integrity, it would be wise to shave, remove all piercings, bathe, and dress in clean and pressed clothing.  I’ve actually dealt with people who arrived apparently unaware of the basics of personal hygiene, and even some smelling strongly of marijuana smoke–and obviously high. Some have tried to borrow money from me.

Once the basic screening is done–usually a written test–an eligibility list is compiled for further testing.  The next step is often a physical fitness test designed to identify people obviously incapable of the basic tasks of the job.  In the past, such tests had to be job-based, and each task had to be defendable in terms of what officers are actually required to do, but the pressing need for diverse police officers has, in many places, diluted this requirement.  In professional agencies, many are dropped at this level, and some actually pass out or have cardiac events.

Some try to become police officers because of the romance and authority of the job.  Unfortunately, their view of police work is usually drawn from TV and the movies; it has little to do with reality.

Those that pass the physical tests undergo intensive background checks—which in some cases/places are ignored–and psychological fitness exams—the results of which are, in some cases/places, ignored–such as the Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).  The next step is usually questioning by a panel of serving officers of various ranks, and perhaps a personal interview with the Chief or Sheriff (in smaller agencies).  A polygraph is also normally done, which can find skeletons in closets an applicant would rather keep closed.  In some cases/places, skeletons are a diverse feature, not a bug.

Virtually all new officers begin in the patrol division (or if a Sheriff’s Department, in the jail).  He or she is usually in their early 20s–patrol work is a young person’s job–and most are embarking on a noble career of public service hoping they’ll be able to make a difference.  Some police agencies now require at least an associate’s degree–two years of college–but for most, a high school education is sufficient.  For some agencies, even this qualification might be flexible if one is of the right race or gender.  One can make a reasonable argument for the proposition that a college degree has the potential to make one a more informed, well-rounded person, but good cops are born, not made.  Some people just have the unique genetic endowment that allows them to think, see, anticipate and do things that others will never be able to do at nearly the same level.  These people stand out–and are often feared and driven out–in any law enforcement agency.

At one time, many officers were military veterans, even combat veterans.  For about two decades, as the ranks of veterans thinned in society at large, so did the ranks of veterans in police work.  Since the early 2000s, however, those proportions have increased to some extent and in some places.  This is generally a good development as veterans understand discipline, the necessity of a chain of command, are reliable, capable and steady, and know how to work with a variety of people, all worthy qualities in a police officer.  Their tactical knowledge is also valuable.

One recent development that worries many informed observers is the video game warrior.  Many of the current crop of police officers have been raised with shoot-‘em-up video games.  There is a venerable police aphorism:

Train the way you want to fight, because you’ll fight the way you’ve trained.

I’ve found this to be true enough.  When under stress, we fall back on our training, what we’ve been conditioned to do.  I fear too many contemporary cops have been conditioned to shoot first and always, and sort things out later, and there are an amazing and disturbing number of incidents that reinforce that fear.

For new officers, their first year normally consists of a basic academy where they learn the law, general police procedure, first aid, unarmed combat, firearms, emergency driving and tactics for dealing with people.  This is, in many ways, the hardest and most vital thing to learn.  Such academies normally last from 2-3 months, and are often conducted by the state at a single location.

Upon graduation, they return to their host agencies and often undergo several months of in-house training on the specific rules, regulations, procedures and laws relevant to their jurisdictions.  They also usually undergo additional tactical and firearms training and are commonly issued their duty handgun and equipment.  Most have never been under arms before–many have no firearm skills–and have no idea how to wear or organize their equipment.  They’ll eventually figure it out by trial and error and by watching more experienced officers.

Upon graduation from the local academy, they commonly enter a field training program where they work their way through a standard curriculum while rotating between at least three field training officers.  During this phase of their training, they ride with those officers, who observe and mentor them and write daily evaluations.  This phase normally takes at least three months, and often more.  Among the things they must learn and master: driving, thinking, observing everything around them and speaking coherently on the radio while simultaneously making necessary notes and using the computer, all while not crashing into other vehicles or fixed objects.  Many people simply can’t multitask.

New officers are not usually allowed in a police car on their own for about a year from their date of hire.  By then, if they’re properly trained, they’re ready to assume their jobs at a basic level.  They have an enormous amount yet to learn, but they’re not—theoretically–an obvious, imminent danger to themselves or others.

By this time, agencies have a great deal of money invested in these people and want them to succeed.  Even so, some always wash out during the initial training process, if they’re allowed to wash out.  Yes, politics is often involved in policing.

One March 17, 2011, PJ Media published my article on the Dayton, Ohio Police Department.  I wrote (in part):

It now appears that an even more egregious example of the racial discrimination that has become policy in the Obama/Holder DOJ was already underway.

Due to dozens of retirements, the Dayton, Ohio, Police Department began a hiring cycle. Using an initial test developed by an outside company to eliminate racial bias, a passing score on one part of the test was set at 66% and a second part was set at 72%. However, despite Dayton’s pressing need for police officers, the DOJ forced Dayton to postpone the hiring process for months, and finally demanded that the passing scores be lowered to 58% and 63%.

Under the new lower standards, 258 additional applicants passed the test. The city of Dayton has declined to identify the racial make-up of those passing.

Pity the citizens of Dayton, Ohio and any city forced to hire substandard candidates in the name of racial or gender diversity.  There is, however, another disturbing trend in police hiring: IQ lowering.

credit: bouldercolorado.gov

By this I don’t mean police agencies seek out highly intelligent candidates, quite the opposite, as I documented in this article.  

Many law enforcement agencies want officers only so smart, and no smarter.  The theory is truly intelligent people will get bored and soon leave the job, but that’s not the only reason unprofessional agencies screen for just smart enough candidates.  They’re easier to control, and they’re no threat to the jobs of their “superiors.”  Every American should ask when they need a police officer whether they want a highly intelligent man or woman, or someone just barely average in intelligence responding to their call.

Even for agencies that seek out the best, the biggest stumbling block to excellence in police work is agencies are limited to hiring members of the human race.  This always means that some will be fundamentally unfit for the job.  Most will be average, and some few will be excellent.  Citizens will never know which of these they’ll meet when they’re pulled over, or when an officer comes to their door to take a report.

THE BEGINNING:

New officers have to decide whom they will emulate.  Working with others, they quickly learn who is sharp, hard-working and trustworthy, and who is not.  They learn who is honorable and dedicated to public service and who is lazy, ill-tempered and self-centered.  They also quickly learn who is prone to violate the law and people’s rights, and who is actually dangerous to themselves, their fellow officers and the public.  Remember, officers are hired from the same public with whom you work, with all of the strengths, weaknesses and eccentricities you see every day.  Add diversity hiring to the mix and the cream tends not to rise to the top.

Inevitably, some officers become “badge heavy.”  They come to see themselves as the masters of the public, but above all, they take things personally and make decisions in anger.  Badge heavy officers are overbearing and take pleasure in exercising their authority over others.  They harass and browbeat the public.  They often provoke confrontations, and when they do, are quick to use force, often, excessive force.  They make arrests where more professional officers would simple employ words.  Everyone knows who these officers are, and most do their best to avoid them.

New officers quickly learn how important it is that politics be kept out of their decision-making processes.  Everyone must be arrestable.  If they work in an agency where certain citizens are immune from arrest, their agency is corrupted.  They soon realize how important the support of their superior officers is.  Accusations of wrongdoing are easy to make, and true or false, can taint an officer forever.  Superiors who make such decisions based on favoritism, politics, or whim are dangerous to the police, the justice system and the public.

Unfortunately, these issues often lead to a blue wall of silence and support for officers in trouble, regardless of whether they have done wrong.  If officers cannot reasonably believe that mistakes honestly made will not result in grossly unreasonable punishments, it’s not hard to see how they would tend to circle the wagons in all situations.

Remember that officers are expected to make 100% correct judgments under incredible stresses and to take flawless actions, all of which will be analyzed months later by people with unlimited time in the safety and security of their office chairs.  Amazingly, they mostly succeed.

Officers quickly learn that at least some of their supervisors were promoted not by merit, but because of who they know, or in some cases, because they were so dangerous as patrol officers they were promoted to put them in a job where they could do less damage.  Unfortunately, instead of damaging the public, they tend to damage good police officers.  A great many are promoted because they are willing to do a Chief’s dirty work in dealing with his subordinates.

It quickly becomes obvious that some supervisors and administrators can be trusted–at least to a point–but some cannot.  In many places, politicians absolutely cannot be trusted.

AFTER THE SECOND YEAR:

By this time, new officers have made something of a name for themselves and associated themselves with various groups.  They are no longer called “rookie”–which pleases them greatly–there is a new class of officers on the street to assume that name.

By now, those officers who take firearms seriously, even enjoy them, have begun to notice that they are very much in the minority.  Where they are willing to spend their own time and money to improve their skills, most of their fellow officers are not.  Where they read extensively in the gun and tactics press, their fellows do not.  Where they always carry off duty, many of their fellows do not.  Where they buy their own weapons, trying and discarding various accessories, their fellows own few, if any, weapons apart from their issued handgun.  Where they shoot at or near 100% in qualifications, their fellows barely pass, and often have to reshoot multiple times to barely pass.

They quickly discover that handgun qualifications are a joke.  Normally held once a year, they consist of 50 rounds of practice ammunition, light-loaded ammo with diminished recoil, muzzle flash and report compared to their duty ammo.  The courses of fire are not at all challenging, and are commonly held only in clean, dry, well-lit conditions.  Passing scores are normally in the 70% range, which means that about three out of ten rounds fired can nearly miss, or entirely miss.  For many officers, reshooting qualification is the only practice they ever do.  The only stress involved is that of having to shoot a minimum passing score.

They will also discover that many officers have no idea how to disassemble or clean their handguns, nor do they have cleaning equipment at home.  Some will complete a 20-year career having never cleaned their handguns.  Qualification with shotguns, or in some agencies, patrol carbines (AR-15 type rifles) are normally less comprehensive than handgun qualifications.

Physical combat training is also usually no better than handgun training and qualification.  Most officers are not martial artists.

Officers quickly learn that dealing with the public is a piece of cake.  In fact, most officers like working with people.  Dealing with their own?  That’s something else again.  Some officers will quickly settle into a routine of doing the minimum necessary.  They go along to get along, and avoid any potential political troubles.  This is particularly so in cities like Baltimore, where the politicians and even the prosecutor are more likely to pursue them than criminals, particularly minority criminals.  Some are screw-ups who are always getting into minor troubles, but not quite of sufficient importance to justify firing.  Others work hard and excel.  Some of these will do their best to ingratiate themselves with supervisors and administrators.  They’ll kiss any behind and stroke any ego that can get them promoted, for in police work, the only way to make substantially more money is to enter the supervisory, and then the administrative ranks.  Others care primarily about catching real bad guys and doing their jobs as well as possible.  They are, as the Japanese say, the nails that stick up, and which get hammered down.

During my police years, I had two separate police chiefs tell me that I was too smart to be a policeman.  I sort of appreciated the backhanded compliment, but was fully aware of the irony.  They really didn’t appreciate what they were saying about themselves, their police agency, and their fellow officers. Perhaps they were right, and in any case, it was reflective of my experience: most police administrators want their officers to be only smart enough and no smarter.  They’re easier to control.

Does this mean that most cops are dumb?  Certainly not.  In fact, most are brighter than the average bear.  Many are very smart indeed, particularly in the pursuit of their jobs and their understanding of human beings.  One must know human nature very well to succeed as a police officer.  But as with all occupations, what is usually lauded as good is mostly average.  What is praised as excellent, is often only good, or at least particularly adept at ass kissing.  And what is truly excellent is often attacked.

FINAL THOUGHTS:

I am fully aware, gentle readers, that I’m generalizing, and in generalizing, I am certainly painting some underserving of criticism with a broad brush.  I trust you know I do this not to unfairly castigate the worthy, but to explain the realities of policing and the relationship of the police to the people most cops honorably serve.

I’ll continue tomorrow with an article that explains how incompetent and abusive officers manage to survive, even thrive in police agencies.  It’s not what you think.  I’ll follow that with an article about the consequences of a nation without law enforcement.